Gaddafi the populist socialist

People's Socialist Movements

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Over and over again in our managed press stories are created to manufacture consent.  Gaddafi a popular leader was portrayed as a bloody tyrant. A small group of religious fanatics and mercenaries were funded by the western powers to produce regime change.  News reporting about this revolt was staged in almost move fashion.  However, as reported on RT news network, and elsewhere, but this had little effect upon the opinion of the masses around the globe.  The regime change has a chilling effect upon governments concerning their resistance to globalization and their moves to build a populist base.  Libya’s populist government is the latest victim of the developed countries imperialism.  It is part of the suppression of populist movements in the Middle East, suppressed because they oppose globalization.  Gaddafi was a socialist Arab style.  Below is a sample of his writing on socialism.     

Third International Theory

The Third International Theory or Third Universal Theory (Arabic: نظرية عالمية ثالثة) refers to the style of Government described by Col. Muammar al-Gaddafi in the early 1970s, on which his government, the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, was officially based. It was partly inspired by Islamic socialism and Arab nationalism and partly by the principles of direct democracy. It has similarities with the system of Yugoslav municipal self management in Titoist Yugoslavia, and the Yugoslav Third Way during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s as developed by Edvard Kardelj.[1][2] It was proposed as an alternative to capitalism and communism for Third World countries, based on the stated belief that both of these ideologies had been proven invalid.

The Higher Council for National Guidance was created to disseminate and implement this theory, and it found partial realization in Libya.


Key provisions of the Third International Theory are outlined in the Green Book (published from 1976–1979, see below article). It is a system of views which criticizes European-style democracy and Soviet Marxism in detail.

The theory rejects traditional instruments of government - parliaments, parties and referendums - and contrasts them to the concept of direct popular democracy based on people's congresses and people's committees. The General People's Congress, which passes laws on the state level, considers only those issues that have been discussed and proposed in the agenda of the Primary People's Congresses, which unite the entire adult population.

According to the Third International Theory, the legal system of a society can not depend on the political situation, and must be based on custom and religion. It also proclaims the need to abolish wage labor and to give employees the rights to the products that they manufacture. It professes to realize the ideal form of social coexistence, in which, along with social justice, there has to be a strong power, popular representation and national identity.

In developing this theory, Gaddafi relied on the theoretical writings of anarchist philosophers Mikhail Bakunin and Peter Kropotkin combined with the egalitarian principles of Islam.

Intellectual and political context

Further information: History of Libya under Gaddafi

In the 60's and 70's of the 20th century, in the countries of the Arab-Muslim East, various theories of "national brands of socialism", named "Islamic socialism", became widespread. This socialism was based on the principles of nationalism, religion and equality, and its ideas inspired a number of revolutions, popular uprisings and coups in the Arab world. Similarly, in Libya, on Sept. 1, 1969 a group of Libyan army officers belonging to the Movement of Free Officers, Unionists, and Socialists overthrew the monarchy and proclaimed the Libyan Arab Republic (LAR). The supreme power was temporarily relegated to the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), headed by 27-year-old Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.[3]

    On October 7, 1969 at the 24th Session of UN General Assembly, the Permanent Representative of Libya announced its intention to eliminate all foreign bases on Libyan land.

Following this, the Libyan leadership informed the ambassadors of the United States and Britain that it was terminating the respective agreements. Almost at the same time an offensive began against the position of foreign capital in the economy.

The first results and the nearest tasks of the Libyan revolution were fixed in a public statement on Dec. 11, 1969, a Provisional Constitutional Declaration. Islam was declared the official state religion. It was proclaimed that one of the main goals of the revolution was the building of a form of socialism based on "religion, morality and patriotism." Gaddafi and his companions intended to achieve this through "social justice, high levels of production, the elimination of all forms of exploitation and the equitable distribution of national wealth."

The Revolutionary Command Council was to function as the centre of the political organization of society, with the right to appoint cabinet ministers, to declare war and enter into contracts, to issue decrees with the force of law, and to handle key aspects of internal affairs and foreign policy. Chairman of the IBS Gaddafi was appointed head of the Libyan Arab Republic.[3]

In 1973, Gaddafi organized the Arab Socialist Union (ACC), which became the sole legal political organization in the country. In 1977 the General People's Congress, representing numerous national committees, adopted a decree (the "Sabha Declaration") on the establishment of a "regime of people's power" (the so-called 'direct popular democracy') in Libya, and the country was renamed the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. The Revolutionary Command Council was also renamed and transformed into the General Secretariat of the Congress. In practice, the Arab Socialist Union then merged with the apparatus of the General People's Congress. The people elected into the General Secretariat of the General People's Congress were Gaddafi (General Secretary) and four of his closest associates - Major Abdessalam Jalloud, and generals Abu Bakr Younes Jaber, Mustafa al-Harrubi, and Huveyldi al Hmeydi.

Two years later, the five leaders resigned from public office, yielding them to professional managers. Since then, Gaddafi has officially held the title of the Leader of the Libyan revolution and the group of the five leaders is named "the Revolutionary Leadership". Furthermore, a hierarchy of Revolutionary Committees was established with the purpose of implementing the policies of the Revolutionary Leadership within the system of the People's Congresses.


The Green book is available on line at and can be bought through

The Green Book (Libya)  -- Wikipedia  --3/2012


The Green Book (Arabic: الكتاب الأخضر al-Kitāb al-Aḫḍar) is a short book setting out the political philosophyof the former Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi. The book was first published in 1975. It was "intended to be required reading for all Libyans."[1] It is said to have been inspired in part by The Little Red Book(Quotations from Chairman Mao).[2] Both were widely distributed both inside and outside their country of origin, and "written in a simple, understandable style with many memorable slogans."[3] During the Libyan civil war copies of the book were burned by anti-Gaddafi demonstrators.[4]

An English translation was issued by the Libyan People's Committee,[5] and a bilingual English/Arabic edition was issued in London by Martin, Brian & O'Keeffe in 1976.

The book caused a scandal in 1987, when West German ice hockey club ECD Iserlohn, lead by Heinz Weifenbach, signed a US$900,000 advertising deal for the book.[6]


According to British author and former GLC member George Tremlett, Libyan children spent two hours a week studying the book as part of their curriculum; extracts were broadcast every day on television and radio; its slogans were found on billboards and painted on buildings in Libya; and as of 1993 lectures and seminars on it at universities and colleges have been held in France, Eastern Europe, Colombia, and Venezuela.[7]


The Green Book consists of three parts and has 110 pages with 200 words or more on each page.[7]

  The Solution of the Problem of Democracy: The Authority of the People (published in late 1975)

  The Solution of the Economic Problem: Socialism (published in early 1977)

  The Social Basis of the Third International Theory (published in September 1981)

The Green Book rejects modern liberal democracy based on electing representatives as well as capitalism. Instead, it proposes a type of direct democracy overseen by the General People's Committee which allow direct political participation for all adult citizens.[8][7]

The book states that "Freedom of expression is the right of every natural person, even if a person chooses to behave irrationally, to express his or her insanity."[9] However, freedom of speech is based on public ownership of book publishers, newspapers, television, and radio stations, on the grounds that private ownership would be undemocratic.[7]

[edit]Western views

At least one observer has called the resulting media dull and lacking in a clash of ideas.[7] Dartmouth CollegeProfessor Dirk Vandewalle describes the book as more a collection of aphorisms rather than a systematic argument.[1]Writing for the British Broadcasting Corporation, the journalist Martin Asser described the book as follows: "The theory claims to solve the contradictions inherent in capitalism and communism... In fact, it is little more than a series of fatuous diatribes, and it is bitterly ironic that a text whose professed objective is to break the shackles... has been used instead to subjugate an entire population."[9]


1.     ^ a b Dirk Vandewalle (3 March 2011) (audio/transcript).What's In Gadhafi's Manifesto?. Interview with Melissa Block. All Things Considered. NPR. Retrieved 26 August 2011.

2.     ^ Andrew Roberts (2 March 2011). "The Top 10 Quotes from Gaddafi's Green Book". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 26 August 2011.

3.     ^ Metz, Helen Chapin (1987). "The Green Book".Libya: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. OCLC 19122696. Retrieved 2 August 2011.

4.     ^ Alexander Dziadosz (2 March 2011). "East Libyans burn Gaddafi book, demand constitution". Reuters Africa. Retrieved 26 August 2011.

5.     ^ al-Gaddafi, Muammar (1976) The Green BookPeople's Committee, Libya.

6.     ^ Serge Schmemann (18 December 1987). "Qaddafi Foiled as an Ice Hockey Patron". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2011.

7.     ^ a b c d e Tremlett, George (1993). Gadaffi: The Desert Mystic (First ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf. pp. 208, 210, 214, 217, 220. ISBN 0881849340.

8.     ^ Vandewalle, Dirk J. (2006). A history of modern Libya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.ISBN 0521850487. Retrieved 26 August 2011.

9.     ^ a b Martin Asser (26 March 2011). "The Muammar Gaddafi story". BBC News. Retrieved 26 August 2011.


  The Green Book, online English translation at

  WorldCat: Formats and editions of The Green Book

  The Green Book three parts, translated in Tripoli. Claims absolute fidelity to the original.

  The Green Book

  Libyan direct democracy explained with charts and video –youtube took down this video. 

  The Green book is available on line at




Garnet & Ithaca Press, Oct 31, 2005 - 82 pages

Libya, isolated by much of the international community over the 1988 bombing of a Pan Am plane above the Scottish town of Lockerbie, has undergone a dramatic rehabilitation. Tripoli formally took responsibility for the incident in 2003. The move, which was part of a deal to compensate families of the 270 victims, heralded the lifting of UN sanctions. Months later, Libya renounced weapons of mass destruction paving the way for a further blossoming of relations with the West. Libya's leader, Colonel Muammar Al Gathafi, has expressed revolutionary thoughts that distinguish his country from the world around it. Ideas put forward in his Green Book aim at an alternative to both communism and capitalism while Islam is adhered to but with a unique slant. Republished in a new translation, The Green Book provides fresh insight into the thinking of Muammar Al Gathafi and his Third Universal Theory for a new democratic society. Outlined first is his theory for direct democracy in society, or Jamahiriya, which focuses on the authority of the people, renounces representation or delegation of authority, and recognizes the need for organization of the people at lower levels of society. In The Green Book, Muammar Al Gathafi also suggests an economic revolution, transforming societies of wage earners into companies of partners by applying a political and economic theory of social organization that gives the ownership and regulation of production, distribution, and exchange to the community as a whole. Additionally, the book looks at the launching of a social revolution, presenting solutions to man's struggles in life and the unsolved problems of man and woman, as well as lacking the situation of minorities by laying out sound principles of social life for all mankind. The Green Book provides readers with new insights into a fascinating country, and the philosophies of one the most controversial and prominent leaders alive today.

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